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?How to put in writing a Comparative Analysis
Throughout your academic career, you'll be asked to write down papers in which you compare and contrast two things: two texts, two theories, two historical figures, two scientific processes, and so on. "Classic" compare-and-contrast papers, in which you weight A and B equally, may be about two similar things that have crucial differences (two pesticides with different effects relating to the environment) or two similar things that have crucial differences, yet turn out to have surprising commonalities (two politicians with vastly different world views who voice unexpectedly similar perspectives on sexual harassment).
Around the "lens" (or "keyhole") comparison, in which you weight A less heavily than B, you make use of a as a lens through which to perspective B. Just as seeking through a pair of glasses changes the way you see an object, by making use of A as a framework for understanding B changes the way you see B. Lens comparisons are useful for illuminating, critiquing, or challenging the stability of the thing that, before the analysis, seemed perfectly understood. Often, lens comparisons take time into account: earlier texts, events, or historical figures may illuminate later ones, and vice versa.
Faced that has a daunting list of seemingly unrelated similarities and differences, you may believe confused about how to construct a paper that isn't just a mechanical exercise in which you primary state all the benefits that A and B have in frequent, and then state all the ways in which A and B are different. Predictably, the thesis of these a paper is usually an assertion that A and B are very similar yet not so similar after all. To write down a sound compare-and-contrast paper, you must take your raw data-the similarities and differences you've observed-and make them cohere into a meaningful argument. Right here are the 5 parts required.
Frame of Reference . This is the context in just which you spot the two things you plan to compare and contrast; it is the umbrella beneath which you have grouped them. The frame of reference may consist of an idea, theme, question, problem, or theory; a group of similar things from which you extract two for special attention; biographical or historical info. The most efficient frames of reference are constructed from precise resources rather than your possess thoughts or observations. Thus, within a paper comparing how two writers redefine social norms of masculinity, you would be significantly better off quoting a sociologist relating to the topic of masculinity than spinning out potentially banal-sounding theories of your have. Most assignments tell you exactly what the frame of reference should be, and most courses supply resources for constructing it. In case you encounter an assignment that fails to produce a frame of reference, you must come up with a single on your private. A paper without these kinds of a context would have no angle for the material, no focus or frame to the writer to propose a meaningful argument.
Grounds for Comparison . Let's say you're creating a paper on world-wide food distribution, and you've chosen to compare apples and oranges. Why these particular fruits? Why not pears and bananas? The rationale behind your choice, the grounds for comparison . allows your reader know why your choice is deliberate and meaningful, not random. For instance, inside of a paper asking how the "discourse of domesticity" may be chosen inside of the abortion discussion, the grounds for comparison are obvious; the issue has two conflicting sides, pro-choice and pro-life. Inside a paper comparing the effects of acid rain on two forest sites, your choice of sites is less obvious. A paper focusing on similarly aged forest stands in Maine as well as the Catskills will be build differently from a particular comparing a new forest stand inside the White Mountains using an old forest inside of the same region. You absolutely need to indicate the reasoning behind your choice.
Thesis. The grounds for comparison anticipates the comparative nature of your thesis. As in any argumentative paper, your thesis statement will convey the gist of your argument, which necessarily follows from your frame of reference. But in the compare-and-contrast, the thesis is dependent on how the two things you've chosen to compare actually relate to 1 another. Do they lengthen, corroborate, complicate, contradict, correct, or discussion a single another? Around the most standard compare-and-contrast paper-one focusing on differences-you can indicate the precise relationship concerning A and B by utilizing the word "whereas" with your thesis:
Whereas Camus perceives ideology as secondary to the have to have to address a special historical moment of colonialism, Fanon perceives a revolutionary ideology because the impetus to reshape Algeria's history within a direction toward independence.
Whether your paper focuses primarily on difference or similarity, you want to make the relationship around A and B clear inside your thesis. This relationship is for the heart of any compare-and-contrast paper.
Organizational Scheme. Your introduction will include your frame of reference, grounds for comparison, and thesis. There are two essential ways to organize the body of your paper.
In text-by-text . you discuss all of the, then all of B.
In point-by-point . you alternate points about A with comparable points about B.
As soon as you think that B extends A, you'll probably make use of a text-by-text scheme; once you see A and B engaged in discussion, a point-by-point scheme will draw attention to the conflict. Be aware, however, that the point-by- point scheme can come off as a ping-pong game. YouвЂ™re able to avoid this effect by grouping much more than 1 point together, thereby cutting down for the range of times you alternate from the to B. But no matter which organizational scheme you choose, you will want not give equal time to similarities and differences. In fact, your paper will be a whole lot more interesting if you happen to get to the heart of your argument as speedily as conceivable. Thus, a paper on two evolutionary theorists' different interpretations of precise archaeological findings may very well have as couple of as two or three sentences around the introduction on similarities and at most a paragraph or two to create the contrast concerning the theorists' positions. The rest within the paper, whether organized text- by-text or point-by-point, will treat the two theorists' differences.
You can still organize a classic compare-and-contrast paper either text-by-text or point-by-point. But inside a "lens" comparison, in which you spend significantly less time with a (the lens) than on B (the focal textual content), you almost always organize text-by-text. That's mainly because A and B are not strictly comparable: A is merely a device for helping you discover whether or not B's nature is actually what expectations have led you to definitely believe it is.
Linking of the and B . All argumentative papers require you to definitely link every single point inside of the argument again to the thesis. Without these types of links, your reader will be unable to see how new sections logically and systematically advance your argument. In a very compare-and contrast, you also desire to make links relating to A and B inside the body of your essay once you want your paper to hold together. To make these links, use transitional expressions of comparison and contrast ( similarly, moreover, likewise, to the contrary, conversely, about the other hand ) and contrastive vocabulary (on the example below, Southerner/Northerner ).
As a girl raised during the faded glory with the Old South, amid mystical tales of magnolias and moonlight, the mother remains part of the dying era. Surrounded by hard times, racial conflict, and restricted opportunities, Julian, relating to the other hand . feels repelled by the provincial nature of home, and represents a new Southerner, a person who sees his indigenous land through a condescending Northerner's eyes.
Copyright 1998, Kerry Walk, for that Creating Center at Harvard University http://killerstream-covers.com/essay-essay-essay-6/